Nordic skiing features the oldest snowsport to be included in the Winter Olympics - cross country skiing. This traditional Scandinavian sports has been a part of the games since their inception in 1924. The Cross Country events include long distance Mass Starts requiring endurance to cover up to 50km and short and fast sprints showcasing explosive power. Biathlon combines the endurance and power of Cross Country skiing with the skill and precision of rifle shooting.  

Cross Country

Individual (Men’s 15km, Women’s 10km)

Athletes set out in 15-30 second intervals, Men can choose between Skate or Classic technique while Women must Skate. Traditionally courses feature 1/3rd Uphill, 1/3rd Flat and 1/3 Downhill.

Mass Start (Men’s 50km, Women’s 30km)

 As suggested by the name all the athletes start together and can choose which technique to use on this long distance race.

Skiathlon (Men’s 15+15km, Women’s 7.5+7.5km)

A mass start Nordic race in which the athletes must complete the first half of the course skiing in the Classic technique and second half in Skate technique.


 A short and fast race in which athletes can choose between Classic or Skate technique to cover a course of up to 1.8km.

Team Sprint

One of the most exciting XC events, teams of two cover a course between 0.8-1.8km in either classic or skate technique, it’s fast and explosive, definitely one not to miss!

Relay (Men’s 4x10km, Women’s 4x5km)

Four athletes compete in succession with the first two skiing in classic technique and the last two using the skate technique.


Biathlon combines cross country skiing and rifle marksmanship and requires both stamina and skill. The sport has evolved from traditional methods of Scandinavian winter hunting in which a hunter would track and kill their pray using skis. There are six events, Sprint (Men’s - 10km, Women’s 7.5km) which has 2 rounds of shooting 5 targets in the prone and standing position with a penalty loop of 150m for each missed target, Individual (20km/15km) which has 4 rounds of shooting and a minute penalty for each miss and Pursuit (12.5km/10km) which has a staggered start based on the results from the Individual and Sprint competitions. There is also a Mass Start event (15km/12.5km) which as the name suggests has all the athletes starting together and 2 Relay events (4x7.5km/4x6km) and a mixed relay all of which allow 3 spare bullets which must be hand loaded individually if needed, for each target missed after the bullets are used the skier must complete the 150m penalty loop.